greater  Zandvlei  Estuary  Nature  Reserve

The Rehabilitation of the Salt Marsh area of the Greater Zandvlei Estuary Nature Reserve by removing invassive Waxberries (Morella Cordifolia)

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Compiled by: FAIRUZ HOWA   fay.howa@gmail.com

Greater Zandvlei Estuary Nature Reserve, City of Cape Town Nature Conservation
Date: 27 JUNE 2008

ABSTACT
The Salt Marsh area of the Greater Zandvlei Estuary Nature Reserve (GZENR) was being invaded by the indigenous plant, Morella cordifolia. This plant was out-competing all the other plant species and limited the biodiversity of the area. The aim of this study was to remove the majority of M. cordifolia and to monitor the changes in flora and fauna composition.

This was achieved by doing a preliminary ground dwelling fauna assessment using pitfall traps as well as manually removing M. cordifolia using chainsaws, loppers or slashers. Herbicide was applied to the cut stumps to limit the amount of regrowth of M. cordifolia. The site was also visited regularly to monitor the immediate flora and fauna responses to the removal of M. cordifolia.

It was concluded that the removal of M. cordifolia had positive responses for both the flora and fauna species. The abundance in space, light and nutrients promoted the growth of plant seedlings. The removal of M. cordifolia also resulted in a warmer microclimate that was favourable for the activity of ectotherms. The availability of these ectotherms also supported more consumers in food webs.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND ON THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The Salt Marsh area of the Greater Zandvlei Estuary Nature Reserve (GZENR) is currently being invaded by the indigenous plant, Morella cordifolia. This plant species is dominates the canopy and limits the biodiversity of the site by out-competing the other plants species for sunlight and space. Some rare plants have not been observed in the Salt Marsh site since Morella cordifolia has invaded the site. This plant species has also been observed in other sites around the reserve.

Zandvlei has undergone extensive vegetation rehabilitation since the 1950’s and has become the last ecologically functional estuary on the False Bay coastline (Sheasby pers. comm. 2007). It is already known that M. cordifolia existed in the area before the site was extensively rehabilitated seven years ago but M. cordifolia was never observed as an invasive plant in the area during that time (Dorse. pers comm 2008). Photographic evidence indicates that the area was more open and sparsely vegetated in the past. This also indicates that M. cordifolia had a smaller impact on the floral community.

The vegetation types occurring at Zandvlei Nature Reserve, Strandfontein Sewage Works and Rondevlei Nature Reserve (approximately two-three east of Zandvlei) are similar in terms of species composition, density and canopy cover. However, neither Rondevlei nor Strandfontein are as heavily infested with M. cordifolia as the site in Zandvlei. This could suggest that the conditions at Zandvlei are more ideal for M. cordifolia to invade the Salt Marsh plant community and dominate the other plant species.

There are few records regarding the invasion of plant communities by an indigenous plant species. This case study may not only increase the flora and fauna biodiversity of the study area but may also provide the necessary methodology to minimise the damage of these invasive species on plant communities, whether they are alien species or not.

1.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON WAXBERRIES (Morella cordifolia)

1.2.1 Classification
SANBI (2005) classifies M. cordifolia as the following:
FAMILY NAME: Myricaceae
GENUS: Morella
SPECIES: cordifolia
COMMON NAME: waxberry; candle berry

1.2.2 Identification
Trinder-Smith (2006) describes M. cordifolia as an erect shrub that grows up to one meter. However, South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) report M. cordifolia may grow up to three meters in length (2005). This plant has heart- shaped leaves that are arranged densely on the branches without stalks. Trinder-Smith (2006) reported that the leaves are also hairless, leathery and gland-dotted especially on the underside of the leaf. The male and female flowers are found on separate plants (Trinder-Smith 2006). The male catkins are 2-5 mm long and shorter than the leaves while the female catkin can be up to one centimetre long and are found in dense clusters around the stem (SANBI. 2005). M. cordifolia typically flowers from April to July every year (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. 2008). The fruits are round and purple-black in colour (Trinder- Smith. 2006). These berries have a thick, waxy layer covering the entire surface of the fruit. Barrie-Low (2006) suggests that this plant is a pioneer shrub. A single plant can cover an area of 7 m2 because M. cordifolia not only sends its branches vertically but horizontally along the ground as well (SANBI 2005).

1.2.3 Distribution and ecology
According to Trinder-Smith (2006), M. cordifolia is common and locally abundant on stable sand dune near to the sea. Its distribution extends from Langebaan to the Cape Peninsula to close to the Kei River mouth (SANBI 2005).

SANBI (2005) report that M. cordifolia is wind pollinated and the pollen produced by male plants is favoured by bees. Berries on female plants may remain on the plant for a long period and may form an aerial seed bank (SANBI 2005). The berries on female plants may be eaten by and therefore dispersed by birds (Knevel. 2001).

M. cordifolia is associated with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus that grows between the roots and assists the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil (SANBI. 2005). M. cordifolia’s roots also form root nodules that have nitrogen-fixing bacteria that convert nitrogen in the soil to ammonia (SANBI. 2005). This could have an impact on the nutrient levels in the soil which could in the long term affect the vegetation type M. cordifolia then use this ammonia to make chlorophyll, proteins and enzymes.

1.2.4 Historical uses
Historically, the berries of M. cordifolia were used by early European settlers as a source of wax for candles (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. 2008). The berries were placed in boiling water and the wax would float to the top (Arendse. pers. comm. 2007). The wax was then collected and pressed into cakes until it was melted again. The wax also makes exceptional polish and can also be used to make soap (Arendse. pers. comm. 2007).

According to SANBI (2005), the wax from M. cordifolia berries was also eaten by the Khoi as the wax from the berry is actually a true fat. The bark from the stems and roots of M. cordifolia were used in the tanning of skins (SANBI. 2005). In the early 1900s, M. cordifolia was used for dune stabilization prior to the use of alien species for this purpose.

1.3 THE STUDY AREA

1.3.1 Climate
The Greater Zandvlei Estuary Nature reserve is situated in a Mediterranean climate that experiences cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers (Cowling & Richardson. 1995). The summer months are from October to April and the winter months are from May to September (South African Weather Service. 2003). The South African Weather Service (2003) has recorded an average minimum and maximum temperature for summer 16°C and 26°C respectively. The average minimum and maximum temperature for winter is 8°C and 18°C respectively (South African Weather Service 2003).

The climate of the Cape Peninsula is predominantly controlled by two systems. During summer months, the Atlantic high-pressure systems (with an anti-cyclone wind flow) are located in the south (Paterson-Jones 1991). Mucina & Rutherford (2006) reported that these high-pressure systems are located near 37° S in summer. These pressure systems forces cold fronts away from the continent and causes strong south easterly winds to blow after relatively calm conditions (Paterson-Jones. 1991). As winter approaches, these pressure systems move north to approximately 32° S (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006) and allow cold fronts to cross the Western Cape and penetrate inland for varying distances (Paterson-Jones 1991). These cold fronts cause strong, north-westerly winds to blow and rain will follow after a couple of days (Cowling & Richardson. 1995).

During dry summers, cloud cover is frequent and fuelled by strong winds (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006). Mucina & Rutherford (2006) report that over 500 mm of water can be precipitated per year without being recorded on standard rain gauges.

Mucina & Rutherford (2006) also report that relative humidity is highest along the coast in summer but high values are also reached inland during winter. In terms of wind speed, the southerly gradient winds are reinforced by the sea breeze over False Bay and raises maximum wind velocities in the early afternoon (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006). Rutherford & Westfall (1994) add that lightning frequency and hail are rare in the western parts of the biome, where the two study sites are located.

1.3.2 Vegetation Type

The study site is located within the Fynbos biome, a biome renowned for its floristic diversity. The fynbos biome is characterised by the co dominance of evergreen, sclerophyllous plants that do not exceed three metres in height (Rutherford & Westfall. 1994). According to Cowling & Richardson (1995), the driving forces of this biome are the summer droughts, lack of soil nutrients, recurring fire and the wind. These forces have an effect on how the fynbos plants appear and how they live. Within the fynbos biome, many different vegetation types exist depending on the geology, soil and other environmental conditions occurring at a particular area.

The vegetation type of the study site is classified as Cape Flats Dune strandveld. Cowling et al (2003) describe strandveld as a dense to open shrubland of medium height (0.5 – 1.5 m) and a biomass of 3500 – 8250 g m-2. Cowling et al (2003) add that the vegetation in this vegetation type is mostly sclerophyllis, deciduous and evergreen plants with shrub, grass and restiod growth forms. Mucina & Rutherford (2006) add that the shrub structure of this vegetation type is extremely low especially when it is closer to the seashore due to stunting from salt spray, high winds and extreme conditions.

1.3.2.1 Distribution of Cape Flats Dune Strandveld
The largest section of this veld type extends across the south coast of False Bay, between Muizenberg and Gordon’s Bay (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006).

1.3.2.2 Landscape Features
Mucina & Rutherford (2006) report that this vegetation type occurs on a flat or slightly undulating landscapes between 0 – 80 m above sea level. However, the altitude may reach up to 200 m in places (Cowling et al. 2003).

1.3.2.3 Geology and soils
This vegetation type is found mostly on tertiary to recent calcareous sand that originated from marine sediments and overlying metasediments of the Tygerberg formation (Mucina & Rutherford. 2006). Outcrops of Sandveld Group limestone are also found along the False Bay coast (Cowling et al. 2003).

1.3.2.4 Important taxa
Most authors (Acocks. 1988; Cowling et al. 2003; Mucina & Rutherford. 2006) refer to the following taxa as being important to this vegetation type:
Chrysanthemoides monilifera; Euclea racemosa subsp. Racemosa; Helichrysum species; Lessertia fruticosa; Lycium; Metalasia muricata; Morella cordifolia; Nylandtia spinosa; Otholobium bracteolatum; Passerina species; Pelargonium; Phylica ericoides; Rhus species; Salvia africana-lutea.
1.3.2.5 Fire
Fire plays a less important role in Cape Flats Dune strandveld communities than in other fynbos types. The fire frequency is usually low. Mucina & Rutherford (2006) report there is no data on fire-return intervals for strandveld currently exist but the interval is probably between 50 – 200 years.

1.3.2.6 Threats to this vegetation type
According to Louw & Rebelo (1996), this vegetation type is under threat from urbanization as these areas are often encroached by human developments and infrastructure. Alien vegetation is another threat to this vegetation type. Acacia cyclops and Acacia saligna are common invaders in this vegetation type and often decrease the biodiversity. The invasion of these species is low in GZENR and is controlled by manual eradication methods (Sheasby. pers. comm. 2008).

1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

1. Determine what small ground-dwelling fauna species are currently using the area by using pitfall traps. These data will be used to compare changes in fauna diversity before and after rehabilitation.

2. Remove the majority of the invasive M. cordifolia and other invasive plant species from the area and appropriate control measures such as herbicide to prevent the re-growth of these species.

3. Record all plant species currently occurring in the Salt Marsh area to form baseline data to monitor the changes in floral composition after the removal of M. cordifolia.

4. Determine what fauna species is using the area after the rehabilitation by using pitfall traps and visual observations.

5. Monitor the site for any re-growth of invasive plant species.

6. Recommend indigenous plant species that are compatible with the area.

7. Use the data from this to draw up a management plan for the site.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Preliminary Assessment: Determining which ground-dwelling fauna species occur in the Salt Marsh:
Five plastic, twenty five litre drums were used to make pitfall traps. A circular hole was cut out of the bottom of each drum. A hole in the ground was then dug out at designated places in the Salt Marsh in such a manner that the drum could fit properly in the hole without sloping to one side. The drum was then placed inside the hole with its open-end facing upwards.

The pitfall traps were arranged approximately two meters away from each other and in a circular fashion. The pitfall traps were arranged at the edges of M. cordifolia stands in order to monitor the ground-dwelling fauna species currently living among M. cordifolia. The pitfall traps were checked twice a day for a period of ten days.

Removing M. cordifolia and alien invasive species:
M. cordifolia was cut using equipment such as loppers, chainsaws and slashers. The plant stems were cut as close to the ground as possible. The cut stumps were then treated with the herbicide Triclon at a 2% concentration. The herbicide was applied directly to the stump using paintbrushes. Some plants were pulled out of the ground at the root. The removed M. cordifolia were placed on designated brush piles to be burnt later to reduce nutrient loads in the area. These brush piles were placed in accessible areas that had lower risk of fire spreading to other plant communities. Fire breaks were also cut around the brush piles to minimize the risk of wildfires spreading.

Rooikrans (Acacia cyclops) was also removed using the same method described above.

Monitoring flora and fauna:
A species list of flora was drawn up after all the species occupying the study area were identified using numerous field guides (see Other References).

The study area was also monitored for re-growth of M. cordifolia on a regular basis. If the plant had re-sprouted, the plant would undergo the same removal procedures described above. The study area was also monitored for the re-growth or seedlings of alien invasive plant species.

Several observations were noted in field notes as well as communications with invasive plant specialists. Pitfall traps were also placed in the same designated places after the M. cordifolia stands had been removed. These pitfall traps would aid in monitoring changes in fauna composition after the stands were removed.

RESULTS
Preliminary assessment of ground-dwelling fauna:
Table 1: The results of the assessment of ground-dwelling fauna using pitfall traps before Morella cordifolia was removed from the study site.

Table 1 Assessment of ground-dwelling fauna in the Salt Marsh site

  CLASS OF FAUNA FAUNA SPECIES QUANTITY TIME
DAY 1 - - - MORNING
- AMPHIBIA Tomopterna delelandii 1 AFTERNOON
- REPTILIA Meroles knoxii 2 AFTERNOON
DAY 2 AMPHIBIA Tomopterna delelandii 1 MORNING
- REPTILIA Meroles knoxii 1 AFTERNOON
- INSECTA Lampyridae species 1 AFTERNOON
DAY 3 No specimens recorded - - -
DAY 4 INSECTA Lampyridae species 1 MORNING
- INSECTA Cophogryllus species 1 MORNING
- ARACHNIDA Palystes castaneus 1 MORNING
- AMPHIBIA Tomopterna delelandii 1 AFTERNOON
DAY 5 INSECTA Cophogryllus species 1 MORNING
- AMPHIBIA Strongylopus grayii 1 MORNING
- INSECTA Tachypompilus ignites 1 AFTERNOON
DAY 6 INSECTA Lampyridae species 1 MORNING
- INSECTA Cophogryllus species 1 AFTERNOON
DAY 7 No specimens recorded  - - MORNING
- REPTILIA    Meroles knoxii 1 AFTERNOON
DAY 8 AMPHIBIA Strongylopus grayii 1 MORNING
- No specimens recorded - - AFTERNOON
DAY 9 REPTILIA Meroles knoxii  1 MORNING
- No specimens recorded - - AFTERNOON
DAY 10 INSECTA Pachypasa capensis 1 MORNING
- No specimens recorded - - AFTERNOON

Removing M. cordifolia and alien invasive plant species:
A team of fifteen people were used to clear the study area of invasive flora using the prescribed method. It took the team a total of five days to clear the area of invasive flora with the team working eight hours each a day. Very few M. cordifolia plants could be pulled out of the ground at the roots. There were very few A. cyclops found in the area. Most of the A. cyclops that was found in the area were seedlings and were easily pulled out of the sand.

FIield observations
Flora related responses:
A large number of seedlings of other indigenous plants were noted after the removal of M. cordifolia. Most of these seedlings were Chrysanthemoides monilifera. A large number of geophytes were also found to be growing after the removal of M. cordifolia. Sideroxylon inerme (milkwood tree) was also found in the study area after the invasive flora had been removed.

All flora species noted in the study site after the removal of M. cordifolia is attached as Appendix 1.

Fauna related responses:
In terms of reptilian responses to the removal of M. cordifolia, a larger number of individuals belonging to same species were noted. A greater diversity of reptilian species was also noted in the study site. Longer periods of activity of reptiles were also noted in field notes.

In terms of avian responses to the removal of M. cordifolia, twice the number of bird species was observed in the study area. A large proportion of these bird species were successfully hunting in the study area and were using different levels of the plant community.

In terms of amphibian responses to the removal of M. cordifolia, a larger number of frog species was noted for the area as well as an increase in the population of common frogs in the study area.

A larger number of insect species were also noted in the area after the removal of M. cordifolia and they were also had longer periods of activity.

In terms of mammal responses to the removal of M. cordifolia, more tracks were noted in the area by Cape grysbok (Raphicerus melanotis). Sightings of small rodents were also reported in the study area.

All animal species and their occurrence in the study site are attached as Appendix 2.

DISCUSSION
From Table 1, it can be interpreted that there was initially very little fauna movement in the Salt Marsh area. However, looking at the field observations, the fauna composition of the area started to change not only in terms of species but population sizes as well.

Ectotherms (such as insects, reptiles and amphibians) in particular were noted to rapidly change in terms of species composition and populations. Their longer periods of activity were possibly the result into the change in the microclimate. Dense stands of M. cordifolia cause colder microclimates because of the immense shade throughout the day and do not favour ectotherms. Once M. cordifolia was removed, the sun could heat up more open sand and the warmer microclimate was more suitable for these ectotherms. The removal of M. cordifolia also provided these ectotherms with more room to hunt and breed successfully.

The increase in insect species and periods of activity correspond with periods of activity of other ectotherms and insect feeding birds. This indicates that insects form the basis of most food webs in the study area. The increase in the number of insect species would mean that there is more food available to other animal species.

From field observations, bird species also hunted more successfully in the study site. The removal of M. cordifolia provided more space for the birds to manoeuvre around while hunting and more space for birds that make their nests on the ground. The removal of M. cordifolia also opened up different levels in the canopy of the plants. This provided more niches for different bird species to occupy and therefore increased the diversity of bird species in the area.

Since more tracks were noted in the area by R. melanotis, it suggests that the study area had become more accessible now that the dense stands of M. cordifolia had been removed.

In terms of flora responses to the removal of M. cordifolia, the facts that so many seedlings from different plant species were present after the removal of the invasive species indicate that conditions were not ideal for these seedlings to grow in previous conditions. Previously, these seedlings could not compete with M. cordifolia for resources such as nutrients, space and sunlight. However, once M. cordifolia was removed, these resources became available to the seedlings and helped them to grow.

CONCLUSION
The primary objective of this study was to rehabilitate the Salt Marsh area of the Greater Zandvlei Estuary Nature Reserve by removing invasive waxberries (Morella cordifolia) and thus increase the biodiversity of the area.

From the results of the field observations, there was a significant increase in not only the number of species but the number of individuals per species as well. This indicates that dense stands of M. cordifolia have a negative effect on the diversity of ground-dwelling fauna species. The dense stands of M. cordifolia affect the microclimate of these ground-dwelling fauna species and limit their activity. Once M. cordifolia was removed, the ambient temperature of the microclimate was higher because the sun had more surface area to heat up. The warmer temperature was more favourable to the ground-dwelling fauna species because they were mostly ectotherms. The warmer microclimate also promoted higher species diversity of insects as well as longer periods of activity by insects. The availability of these insects supported many more food webs within the study site.

The floral diversity of the study site also had a positive response to the removal of M. cordifolia. Seedlings of various plant species started to grow in response to the availability of space, sunlight and nutrients. By removing the invasive M. cordifolia, the different levels of the plant community were restored and this opened new niches to fauna species, particularly bird species. Like any invasive plant, M. cordifolia has to be monitored on a regular basis for regrowth in order to successfully rehabilitate the study site. The study site has been disturbed by removing M. cordifolia and is more prone to invasion by alien plant species such as Acacia saligna (Port Jackson) and Acacia cyclops (rooikrans). However, through careful monitoring and applying the appropriate eradication methodology, the Salt Marsh area of the Greater Zandvlei Nature Reserve can be successfully rehabilitated.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Dorse (pers comm., 2008) recommends that the following plant species should be introduced into the study site to further increase the diversity of the area:

FAMILY 

SPECIES

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Roepera flexuosa
ASTERACEAE Dimorphotheca pluvialis
EUPHORBIACEAE Euphorbia mauritanica
IRIDACEAE Ferraria crispa
IRIDACEAE Ixia species

Sheasby (pers comm, 2008) recommends that Euphorbia marlothianii should also be put back into the area from Rondevlei. Other annuals and bulbs typically occurring Cape Flats dune strandveld can also be introduced in the area to increase plant diversity. The species listed above are all species that are well adjusted to coastal sands and would survive the environmental conditions at the study site as well as keep the veld open.

The author would also recommend that pitfall traps be placed in the area during similar climate conditions (late summer-early autumn) next year for a statistically valid measure of biodiversity changes of ground dwelling fauna over a longer period of time.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A special word of thanks to the following people for their contribution to this study:
Cassy Sheasby; Clifford Dorse; Mark Arendse; Edward Moses; Andrew Taylor and Sebastian Osborne.

REFERENCES

  • ACOCKS, JPH. 1988. Veld types of South Africa. Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria.
    · BARRIE-LOW, A. 2006. Botanical assessment for a proposed ecotrail on the western Macassar dune. Coastec, Cape Town. 25 p

  • COWLING, RM & RICHARDSON, DM. 1995. Fynbos: South Africa’s unique floral kingdom. Fernwood press, Vlaeberg. 156 p

  • COWLING, RM; RICHARDSON, DM & PIERCE, SM. 2003. Vegetation of Southern Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cape Town.

  • KNEVEL, I.C. 2001. Thesis: The life history of selected coastal foredune species of South Africa. Ph.D., Rhodes University, Grahamstown. 276 p

  • LOUW, AB & REBELO, ATG. 1996. Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria.

  • MUCINA, L & RUTHERFORD, MC (Eds). 2006. The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia 19. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. 807 p
    · NMMU contributors. More about vegetation [Internet]. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University for tomorrow. 2008 June 15. Available from: http://www.nmmu.ac.za/grysbok

  • PATERSON-JONES, C. 1991. Table Mountain walks. Struik Publishers, Cape Town

  • RUTHERFORD, MC & WESTFALL, RH. 1994. Biomes of southern Africa: an objective categorization. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa 63, 1–94.

  • SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY INSTITUTE contributor: Alice Notten. Morella Cordifolia [Internet]. PlantZAfrica.com. 2005 May. Available from: http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantklm/morelcord.htm

  • SOUTH AFRICAN WEATHER SERVICE contributors. Climate data for Cape Town [Internet]. 2008 June 15 [cited 2003 data]. Available from: http://www.weathersa.co.za/Climat/Climstats/CapeTownStats.jsp

  • TRINDER-SMITH, T. 2006. Wildflowers of Table Mountain National Park. South African Wildflower guide 12. Botanical Society of South Africa. 312 p

OTHER REFERENCES

  • BRANCH, B. 1994. Field guide to Snakes and other reptiles of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 399 p

  • MACLEAN, GL. 1996. Field companion to Roberts’ Birds of Southern Africa. John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town. 182 p

  • MANNING, J. 2007. Field guide to Fynbos. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 507 p
    PICKER, M; GRIFFITHS, C; WEAVING, A. 2003. Field guide to insects of South Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 444 p

  • STUART, C AND T. 1996. Field guide to mammals of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. 318 p

APPENDIX 1: PLANT SPECIES LIST PRIOR TO THE REMOVAL OF M. cordifolia

FAMILY SPECIES COMMON NAME
AIZOACEAE Carpobrotus edulis Sour fig
AIZOACEAE Lampranthus Vygie
ANACARDIACEAE Rhus laevigata Dune taaibos
ANACARDIACEAE Rhus lucida Blinktaaibos
ASTERACEAE Chrysanthemoides monilifera Bietou
ASTERACEAE Helichrysum pandurifolium Strawflower
ASTERACEAE Metalasia muricata White bristle bush
ASTERACEAE Senecio burchellii  Geelgifbossie
CRASSULACEAE Cotyledon orbiculata Pig's ear
CYPERACEAE Scirpus nodosus Sedge
FABACEAE Lessertia frutescens Cancer bush
GENTIANACEAE Chironia baccifera  Christmas berry
GERANIACEAE Geranium incanum Amarabossie
GERANIACEAE Pelargonium capitatum Carpet pelargonium
HYACINTHACEAE Lachenalia rubida Red Lachenalia
IRIDACEAE Chasmanthe aethiopica Cobra lilly
JUNCACEAE Juncus kraussii  Rush, biesie
LAMIACEAE Salvia africana lutea Beach salvia
MENISPERMACEAE Cissampelos capensis Dawidjieswortel
OLEACEAE Olea europea subsp. Africana Wild olive
POACEAE Ehrharta villosa Pypgras
POLYGALACEAE Nylandtia spinosa Tortoise berry
PROTEACEAE Leucodendron coniferum Dune conebush
RESTIONACEAE Chondropetalum tectorum Thatching reed
RHAMNACEAE Phylica ericoides Fine featherbush
SAPOTACEAE Sideroxylon inerme Milkwood
THYMELAEACEAE Passerina vulgaria Gonnabos

 

APPENDIX 2: FAUNA SPECIES LIST AND OCCURRENCE WITHIN THE SALT MARSH AREA

X = PRESENT

CLASS  SPECIES COMMON NAME BEFORE REMOVAL AFTER REMOVAL
MAMMALIA Raphicerus melanotis Cape Grysbok  X X
- Lepus capensis Cape Hare - X
- Rhabdomys pumilio Striped field Mouse -  X
  Otomys irroratus Vlei Rat -  X
AVES Prinia maculosa Karoo Prinia X X
- Cisticola tinniens Levaillants Cisticola - X
- Pycnonotus capensis Cape Bulbul X X
- Cossypha caffra Cape Robin-Chat - X
- Estrilda astrild Common Waxbills - X
- Zosterops capensis Cape White eye - X
- Burhinus capensis Spotted Thick-knee  X X
- Pternistes capensis Cape Spurfowl X X
- Cinnyris chalybeus Southern Double collared Sunbird  X  X
- Passer melanurus Cape Sparrow -  X
REPTILIA Meroles knoxii Knox's Sand Lizard X  X
- Tetradactylus seps Short legged Seps - X
- Mabuya capensis Cape skink - X
- Bradypodion pumilum Cape dwarf chameleons - X
- Chersina angulata Angulate tortoise X X
- Dubberia lutrix Common slugeater - X
AMPHIBIA Strongylopus grayii Clicking Stream Frog X  X
- Cacosternum boettgeri Common Caco - X
- Tomopterna delelandii Cape Sand Frog X X
- Afrana fuscigula Cape River Frog - X
INSECTA Cophogryllus species Mute cricket   X X
- Orthoptera spp grasshopper - X
- Lampyridae species Glowworm - X
- Pachypasa capensis Cape Lapet moth X X
- Tachypompilus ignites Spider Hunting Wasp - X
ARACHNIDA Palystes castaneus Rain Spider - X

                                                                                                                                          

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